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Structural Heart Interventions

Structural heart interventions refer to a range of minimally invasive procedures aimed at treating various structural abnormalities or defects within the heart. These interventions are typically performed using catheter-based techniques, avoiding the need for open-heart surgery. Here are some common structural heart interventions:

  1. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR): TAVR is a procedure used to treat aortic valve stenosis, which is the narrowing of the aortic valve. During TAVR, a catheter is inserted through a blood vessel, usually in the groin, and guided to the heart. A replacement valve, typically made of biological materials, is then placed within the narrowed valve, providing a new functional valve.
  2. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair or Replacement: Similar to TAVR, transcatheter techniques can be used to repair or replace the mitral valve. These procedures are employed for conditions such as mitral regurgitation (leaky valve) or mitral stenosis (narrowed valve). Different approaches, such as edge-to-edge repair with a clip or placement of a transcatheter valve, may be used to address the specific problem.
  3. Left Atrial Appendage Closure (LAAC): LAAC is a procedure performed to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). It involves sealing off the left atrial appendage, which is a small sac in the heart where blood clots can form. By closing off the appendage, the risk of stroke due to clot formation is significantly reduced.
  4. Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) Closure: PFO closure is a procedure to treat a small hole in the heart called a patent foramen ovale. This hole, which is present in everyone before birth, sometimes fails to close properly after birth. PFO closure is performed by placing a closure device or a special implant to seal the hole, reducing the risk of certain types of strokes.
  5. ASD Device closure : ASD is small defect in the heart connecting two atria in the heart. A small device is placed by transcatheter approach from the groin across the defect and deployed across the hole to close. Indicated to prevent the development of pulmonary hypertension and right hear failure.
  6. VSD Device closure : VSD is a small defect connecting the two ventricles in the heart. It causes heart failure in children. Untreated leading to severe pulmonary hypertension. A small plug or device placed across the defect to close by transcatheter approach from the groin.
  7. PDA Device closure : PDA is a small connection between the two main vessels in the heart, between Aorta and left pulmonary artery. It leads to heart failure in children. A small vascular plug or device placed across the connection ensuring closure.
  8. Balloon Mitral Valvotomy : It is a procedure used to treat the mitral valve stenosis (narrowing). A small balloon is taken over from the groin and place across the valve and inflated resulting in opening of the valve.

These are just a few examples of structural heart interventions. There are other procedures as well, such as percutaneous tricuspid valve repair, balloon aortic and pulmonary valvotomy and others. The choice of intervention depends on the specific structural abnormality, the patient’s overall health, and the expertise of the medical team. A comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional is necessary to determine the most appropriate treatment option.

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